Our Brave New World: The Dark, Sordid Legacy of the Huxley Family

Thomas Henry Huxley

In many ways the modern world was launched into being, not by Charles Darwin and his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, but by T.H. Huxley, “Darwin’s Bulldog.”  Even Huxley’s gushing biographer, Ronald Clark, admits that Darwinism might only be a footnote in history without the Bulldog’s tireless promotion, which expertly exploited the major organs of public opinion. When his first review of Darwin’s book appeared in The Times, Huxley said that he expected the review to cause reflection among “some of the educated mob, who derive their ideas from The Times.[1]He frequently gave speeches to working-class men, once writing to his wife: “My working men stick by me wonderfully, the house being fuller than ever last night. By next Friday evening they will all be convinced that they are monkeys.”[2] Why was it so important for him and his colleagues to convince the world that man was no more than an elevated thinking ape? Perhaps Bertrand Russell provides the answer when he says, “The absence of any sharp line between men and apes is very awkward for theology.”[3] This is plainly ridiculous, for any five-year old child can see the clear line separating man from apes: reason, language, understanding, will; New York, London, Paris; the Mass in B Minor, the 9th Symphony (Beethoven or Dvořák, take your pick), King Lear. Where is there anything comparable in an ape? 

Huxley expanded the ideas of Darwin’s book, adapting them to human social life and not just the natural world, as Darwin had done, and so is in a very real sense the founder of Darwinism, the metaphysical substrate of our world. He was well rewarded for this service, welcomed into the Royal Society and later becoming its President. He was part of its inner core, the X Club, which provided three successive presidents to the Royal Society. His biographer writes that “from 1870 onward more and more of Huxley’s time” was given over to education and the “ethical structure” of society. “For Huxley, the need for this structure was but the natural outcome of a process which had begun with The Origin, [and] had continued with the work which linked man firmly with the beasts.”[4] He was voted into the London School Board, became a governor of Owens College and Eton, as well as a Trustee of the British Museum. The biography states that “Huxley attended no fewer than 170 [London School Board] meetings and chaired the Scheme of Education Committee which for all practical purposes built the structure of London Education that was to last for more than half a century.”[5] In the latter years of his life Huxley became a Privy Councilor to the queen, writing to his fellow scientist-propagandist Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, “The Archbishopric of Canterbury is the only object of ambition that remains to me.”[6] This flippant joke reveals more than one might initially suspect. For as a matter of fact Charles Darwin is buried in Westminster Cathedral, and this monstrous joke was engineered by none other than Francis Galton—the founder of the eugenics movement—and T.H.  Huxley. 

Julian Huxley

Huxley had a son named Leonard who, with Julia Arnold (of the famous Arnold family), had three sons and a daughter; one of the sons committed suicide. The other two, Aldous and Julian, became very famous, one as a novelist and the other as a scientist and propagandist like his grandfather. Julian was a devil as a child. Once when he spilled some milk and was told he was a pig he responded by emptying the whole glassful on the bed. His grandfather once said, “I like that chap . . . I like the way he looks you straight in the face and disobeys you.”[7] Although he did say later that Julian’s “one failing is an invariable belief in his own infallibility.”[8] This hubris is perhaps most apparent in his coining of the term “transhumanism” in 1957, as this implies the perfectibility of the species through science and technology. Julian was an agnostic and a leader in the construction of “secular humanism”; he was an internationalist and a eugenicist and wished to apply science to social problems. He rose quickly up the ranks of the establishment, becoming the first Director General of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). He was also a member of the British Eugenics Society and its president from 1959 to 1962, granted the prestigious “Fellowship of the Royal Society,” and knighted in 1958.

While T.H. invented the doctrine of agnosticism, his grandson Julian was obsessed with what he called scientific humanism. “Just as TH had found that the championship of evolution led him inexorably on towards a criticism of religion and ethics, so did Julian find that his own study of biology led not only towards a new assessment of religion but also towards a study of the ways in which science might be applied to social problems.”[9] He wished to create a religion for humanity, a religion without revelation, which is the title of one of his books. In other words, he wanted to found a religion based on man’s authority rather than on the authority of God. He writes in Religion without Revelation: “I believe firmly that the scientific method, although slow and never claiming to lead to complete truth, is the only method which in the long run will give a satisfactory foundation for beliefs, [and] we quite assuredly at present know nothing beyond this world and natural experience.”[10] This is a remarkable admission, for it reveals his prejudice against Christianity, even while admitting that the scientific method cannot give the complete truth or answer any questions about man’s purpose or meaning. He dismisses outright the kind of evidence offered by Christianity because of his own faith in natural science. This was the germ of scientific humanism. 

He writes, “belief in miracles, in revelation, in the inspired authority of the Bible, runs counter to the established truth, as the scientifically trained see it.”[11] I hope the attentive reader discerns the utter nonsense of this statement. Miracles, divine revelation, and the authority of the Bible are all outside the jurisdiction of science. He goes on to say that the “Conflict between religion and science in the last half-century resulted in the complete defeat of religion’s claim to impose its view as authoritative on man’s mind, but it did not build up anything for those whom it emancipated.”[12] This conflict is chimerical and amounts to him imposing his own structure of faith on the wider world, if that world can be persuaded—and this is precisely what happened when the Royal Society and its cult of science (scientism) supplanted the position of Christian authority in the Western World. 

Julian defines a humanist as one “who believes that man is just as much a natural phenomenon as an animal or plant, that his body, his mind, and his soul were not supernaturally created but are all products of evolution, and that he is not under the control or guidance of any supernatural Being or beings, but has to rely on himself and his own powers.”[13]Do you notice the problem with this statement? He says evolution created man, not God. Evolution is a process of change in living matter. It can only change what is already there. How did matter and energy get there in the first place? That is the relevant question. But he is not interested in exploring this question because of his a priori faith commitment to the rejection of God. This is as philosophically untenable as Daniel Dennett saying, “The universe brought itself into existence,” a remarkably incoherent statement for a professional philosopher to make!

It should be noted that although he was an evolutionary biologist, Julian was as famous as his brother the novelist for his radio broadcasts, his lectures, and his writing. His biographer writes that the Second World War “saw him for the first time drawn on to official bodies where his concern for planning the future could be translated from paper schemes to reality.”[14] In fact, he saw the war as a vehicle for change, writing: “It is urgent [that we] begin thinking out the plan of the new world order in detail, designing machinery that will work.”[15] In The Freedom of Necessity, which Clark describes as a “curious mixture of propaganda and world appraisal,” Julian writes: “The war we are now fighting is not only the greatest but the most important war that has ever been fought. It is the most terrible and at the same time the most hopeful of wars.”[16] He echoes here Carroll Quigley’s Tragedy and Hope, as Quigley also viewed the war as tragic yet hopeful, a great opportunity to remake the world. Huxley then outlines the planned environment—social and biological—and the planned economy he wants to see after the war.

Like the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, Julian wished to see the “Transvaluation of all Values,” writing in his book Evolution that we should consider “ethics not as a body of fixed principles, but as a product of evolution, and itself evolving.”[17] After the Second World War we saw perhaps the greatest transvaluation of values in world history. For instance, here is a short list of recent headlines from the Internet: “Are Pride Parades Kid-Friendly? Parents Say Children Can Handle The Kink”; “‘Use Lots of Lube and Enter Anus Slowly’: Chicago Schools Teach Anal Sex to 5thGraders”; “Once You Get Past the Cultural Implications of Cannibalism, You’ll Find There’s a Lot of Science behind the Consumption of Human Flesh”; “Now, Some Scientists Think that even Cannibalism is Worth another Hard Look”; “California’s New Sex Ed Guidelines Encourage Teachers to Talk to Students about Gender Identity, Masturbation”; “Frankenstein Designer Kids: What You Don’t Know About Gender-Transitioning Will Blow Your Mind”; “Virginia Governor says Mother Should be Able to Kill Baby up to 9 Months”; “Drag Queens Reading to Children in Public Libraries”; “The 11-year Old Trailblazing Drag Kid Desmond is Amazing.” This could be multiplied indefinitely. The point is, values have been turned on their head, as the equally anti-Christian Nietzsche and Huxley both wished to see. We will return to Julian after we look at his brother’s novel Brave New World, particularly his book UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, which I will argue—and I think conclusively demonstrate—outlines a future world order not dissimilar to his brother’s dystopia, a brave new world, but with a happy face.

Aldous Huxley

Although Aldous Huxley initially took “for granted that there was no meaning” to existence he eventually embraced “perennialism,” the doctrine that states “a oneness underlies diversity.”[18] In 1930 Huxley, already a well-known novelist, was writing for a journal called The Realist, whose editorial board included himself, his brother Julian, H.G. Wells, Arnold Bennett, Harold Laski, and Rebecca West. He met the editor Gerald Heard only as the journal was folding. Heard was a philosopher, mystic, and later a proponent of LSD, turning many people on to the drug, even Henry Luce, editor of the Time-Life publication empire, and his wife Clare Booth Luce, the well-known conservative and free love practitioner. The famous couple took acid with Heard in the early 1960s. Huxley came under Heard’s spell, was deeply influenced by his ideas and of course himself became a huge advocate of LSD and other drugs. Clark writes that throughout “the next few years it became clear that Huxley’s developing views were being influenced by those of Heard … transformed by a growing interest in the changes which might be made in man’s political and social organizations; by a deepening awareness of the perils, as well as the possibilities, presented by a science which gave man increasing control over his environment.”[19] In Hollywood Huxley met Swami Prabhavananda and eventually joined the Vedanta Society. In 1942 he and Heard founded Trabuco College, writing that “only through change of individual character can there be any real apprehension of God’s nature and will, and a lasting change in civilization or humanity.”[20] He was a full-blown mystic, taking LSD for the first time in 1953. Huxley, Gerald Heard, and Timothy Leary were central propagandists of the drug culture which exploded in the 1960s. In 1932 Huxley published Brave New World, and shortly before he died in 1963, he said: “the general outlines of the book are true today.”[21]

Brave New World

In his 1946 forward to a new edition of Brave New World, Huxley writes that “highly centralized totalitarian governments” are inevitable (xviii).[22] However, he goes on to say, we have a choice. There are “two alternatives”: militarized totalitarianisms—plural—or supranational totalitarianism (xxi)—singular. This was written immediately after the end of the Second World War and the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan, and at the exact time his brother was writing UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, also published in 1946. In other words, like his brother he is pushing for a one world supranational government to avoid a destructive clash of multiple totalitarian regimes in war.“A really efficient totalitarian state,” he says, “would be one in which the all-powerful executive of political bosses and their army of managers control a population of slaves who do not have to be coerced, because they love their servitude. To make them love it is the task assigned, in present-day totalitarian states, to ministries of propaganda, newspaper editors, and schoolteachers” (xviii-xix). But this is not entirely efficient. Huxley predicts the ultimate revolution of happy slaves will require the fulfillment of four things:

  1.  “a greatly improved technique of suggestion—through infant conditioning and … drugs.”
  2. “a fully developed science of human differences, enabling government managers to assign any given individual to his or her proper place in the social and economic hierarchy.” In other words, a neo-feudal world of masters and slaves.
  3. “a substitute for alcohol and other narcotics, something at once less harmful and more pleasure-giving than gin or heroin.” This is the drug soma, of course, but also an ethos of total “sexual promiscuity” and “sexual freedom.”
  4. a “foolproof system of eugenics” (xix-xx).

Notice that “sexual freedom” is a political tool, which those in power “will do well to encourage” (xx).

Although today human beings are still produced viviparously—that is, by a human mother and not out of bottles—I contend that the system of social control in Brave New World is here now, in its early phase. In fact, just the other day I saw an article titled: “Scientists: Artificial Wombs Could Replace Women,” in which it was stated that “Research groups around the world are exploring the possibility of artificial gestation. For instance, one group successfully grew a lamb in an artificial womb for four weeks … Eventually, we might be able to do away with human wombs altogether.”[23] So we edge ever closer.

Techniques of Suggestion

The drug Huxley mentions in connection with techniques of suggestion is scopolamine. One recent article on the drug states that “while under the influence of scopolamine, someone could convince you to willingly withdraw and give away your life savings from your bank account, but you would wake up and remember nothing.”[24] This is exactly what happened to someone named “Carolina.” She was “drugged with scopolamine and apparently told to rob her own house, and hand over the belongings to her captors. Though she does not remember any of it, Carolina says she happily gathered all of her belongings, as well as her boyfriend’s savings and camera equipment, and helped load it up into the vehicles of her captors.” Carolina feels blessed to have escaped even more deleterious consequences, “as many others have had much worse things done to them while under the influence of scopolamine. Reports indicate that scopolamine is often used for much worse crimes, including as a means by which to influence a person to commit more atrocious acts like rape or even murder.”[25] We know that hypnotically programed assassins, called “Manchurian Candidates,” have been used by the invisible government at least since Sirhan Sirhan was framed for killing Bobby Kennedy. As his lawyers’ state, Sirhan Sirhan “was an involuntary participant in the crimes being committed because he was subjected to sophisticated hypno programming and memory implantation techniques which rendered him unable to consciously control his thoughts and actions at the time the crimes were being committed.”[26] In the article from The Science Explorer cited above, we read that some contend that “the Batman movie shooter, James Holmes, was set up and drugged with scopolamine.” Either way, the incessant mass shootings are either a psychological operation using drugged Manchurian Candidates or a symptom of a serious prescription drug problem, as around “90 percent of school shootings . . . have been linked to a widely prescribed type of antidepressant called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs.”[27] Perhaps it’s some combination of the two. In any case, most of the country is on some kind of drug, as Huxley predicted.

In the novel we learn of “Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning Centers.” Ivan Pavlov discovered that a population under deep stress is highly suggestible. Our population is now in a state of permanent low-grade trauma due to regular school shootings, terror threats, and global warming fear mongering, all of it endlessly reported in the sensationalized and mendacious media. We are thus deeply suggestible to brainwashing, which is being systematically applied. In Brave New World there are televisions, although the novel preceded the actual commercialization of TV by almost 20 years. (the Nazis came out with television in the 1930s). As has been noted by media critics for years:

flicker rates of televisions, videos, computers and cinema by design are all programmed to contain hidden properties that physically resonate and alter the human brain’s alpha wave state to induce a hypnotic, mesmerizing, trancelike state of mind. This literally drugs and distorts the cognitive processes of the mass audience being subliminally fed input that modify and shape values, moral and ethical messages and multiple autosuggestions that carry powerful binding effects on people’s unconscious minds and future behavior.”[i]

Interestingly, two of the doctors in the book are called Dr. Wells and Dr. Shaw. H.G. Wells and Bernard Shaw were two of the most famous propagandists for an international world order in the 1930s, and Shaw was constantly arguing that undesirables should be sent to the “lethal chamber.” In the novel undesirables are sent to islands, and a good thing too, the Controller says, or he and the other Controllers would be forced, he supposes, to put them “all in the lethal chamber” (176). In Brave New World sleep conditioning—or as Huxley calls it, Hypnopaedia—is practiced religiously. We learn that it was discovered when a boy named Reuben Rabinovitch went to sleep with the radio on and woke up knowing a speech by George Bernard Shaw, “one of the very few [writers] whose works have been permitted to come down to us” (16-17). Shaw himself wanted children to be brought up, as in the novel, in State Conditioning Centers, not by irresponsible parents, and that is no doubt why Huxley includes him in the novel. In Farfetched Fables Shaw imagines that in the far-off future mankind will reproduce itself in laboratories, and in Misalliance one of his characters cries, “Let the family be rooted out of civilization!  Let the human race be brought up in institutions!”  In 1941 Shaw said he wanted “complete State regulation of . . . lives and thoughts.”[29]  

In the novel the population has been conditioned to be revolted by words like “family,” “home,” “baby,” “mother.” When he discovers that his mother has been sent to the Park Lane Hospital for the Dying—where the terminally ill are barraged with television, synthetic music, and drugs before succumbing to mortality—Savage explains his startled expression and pale face to the nurse by saying, “She’s my mother”; after which the nurse “glanced at him with startled, horrified eyes; then quickly looked away. From throat to temple she was all one hot blush” (153). We learn that “Education must always be moral, not rational” (18). This is a crucial concept to understand if one is to grasp the novel and its relation to our world today, for it means the state implants emotional biases through conditioning. We are then very easily triggered, as the nurse is here to such an extent that she has an autonomous physiological reaction upon hearing the word “mother.” Hypnopaedia is “the greatest moralizing and socializing force of all time,” the Director claims (20). In our world I would call the conditioning technique, Hypnomedia rather than Hypnopaedia, as conditioning is utilized now primarily through television and other screens, and through the neuro-linguistic programming of its talking heads: “At last the child’s mind is these suggestions, and the sum of all the suggestions is the child’s mind. And not the child’s mind only. The adult’s mind too—all his life long. The mind that judges and desires and decides—made up of these suggestions. But all these suggestions are our suggestions,” the Director concludes (20). Frequently I will be talking to people who think they are sharing their own thoughts with me, but in fact these sentiments and prejudices are exactly the same as I am hearing from many others; they are regurgitating their programming, but entirely unaware that they have been programmed at all. “The mind that judges and desires and decides—made up of these suggestions. But all these suggestions are our suggestions.” This is what is meant by a “moral education.”

Drugs and Hyper-Sexualization; or the Totally Permissive Society

The people of Huxley’s brave new world are dependent on drugs—not scopolamine or similar drugs, which would only be used in special cases—but “soma,” a Greek word meaning “body”; for this is a mindless hedonistic utopia with the focus entirely on the body and its pleasure. Nowadays almost seven in ten Americans are taking some pharmaceutical drug, many of them psychotropic. But marijuana is as likely to act as soma for people as prescription drugs. Citing a recent study, a Washington Post article says “pot has become a part of everyday life for millions of Americans” and there are “almost as many marijuana users as there are cigarette smokers in the U.S.”[30] Of course, marijuana has now been legalized or decriminalized in most states. In Huxley’s world and ours, contentedness is manufactured by pharmacology. The people of Brave New World are totally inhibited from introspection and genuine feelings and emotion. Despite the pervasive drug use in our culture, I would contend that the cell phone and the incessant media distraction are even more responsible than drugs for the inhibition of introspection and reflection, but of course there are multiple factors working conjointly. People have been stripped of the capacity to hear the “still, small voice” within that the prophet Elijah mentions as the voice of God. In Eastern Orthodox Christianity this practice is called hesychia—a concentrated silent prayer of the heart leading to theosis—but in the drugged-out, sex-crazed Brave New World and in our heavily mediated world today, this is not possible; a “soma holiday” is always on hand when life is challenging.

In Brave New World no one gets old due to “Gonadal hormones, transfusion of young blood, magnesium salts” (42). Today companies like Ambrosia offer transfusions of young blood at $8,000 a liter, mostly to Silicon Valley executives. Over the last several decades “a multitude of anti-aging practices have appeared worldwide, aiming at retarding or even stopping and reversing the effects of aging on the human body,” including gonadal hormone replacement.[31] And magnesium is found in a plethora of anti-aging products. Of course, aging can’t be staved off indefinitely and the happy slaves are apparently euthanized when youth and health begin to wane: “All the physiological stigmata of old age have been abolished. And along with them, of course . . .” (43). Once unthinkable, euthanasia is legal now in more and more states; even children can be euthanized in Holland: “In the Netherlands children as young as 12 can legally be granted euthanasia.” Almost four and a half percent of registered deaths in Holland in 2017 were due to voluntary euthanasia.[32] Huxley had an uncanny perception into the world of the twenty-first century. 

Huxley writes that the second factor for the assurance of a smoothly running scientific dictatorship with a population of happy slaves, as we’ve been discussing here, is “a substitute for alcohol and other narcotics, something at once less harmful and more pleasure-giving than gin or heroin.” This for him was soma and for us marijuana and prescribed pharmaceutical drugs, but I think so-called sexual freedom, a major focus of the novel, is at least as important as mass drug taking. And besides, the drug revolution and the sexual revolution are inextricable, introduced at the same time and by the same forces. 

The society of Brave New World is a hyper-sexualized society, just like ours. In the novel, children are having sex. Huxley does not mention adults having sex with children (for obvious reasons) but it goes without saying that in a totally permissive society children and adults would be having sex together. The children are conditioned to be totally sexual through “rudimentary sex games” (21). There is an incredibly powerful movement in the world right now to normalize pedophilia and in fact all forms of sexual transgression, as we see in the media and in academia. Note the title of a recent article in the Telegraph: “Paedophilia is Natural and Normal for Males.” The caption underneath the title further elaborates: “How some University Academics Make the Case for Paedophiles at Summer Conferences.”[I]

Before being nurtured and trained into adulthood, the infant is focused on his own bodily pleasures; yet counter to this we have here a society of enforced infantilization. When the director rebukes Bernard, he says: “Alphas are so conditioned that they do not have to be infantile in their emotional behavior. But that is all the more reason for their making a special effort to conform. It is their duty to be infantile, even against their inclination … if ever I hear again of any lapse from a proper standard of infantile decorum, I shall ask for your transference to a Sub-Centre” (75). Alphas are not autonomically compelled to be infantile because they are doing the necessary work of the technocratic society and need to exercise their minds. But infantilization is essential to the ethos of the greater society and so they are expected to conform, just as the Outer Party members in 1984 are conditioned to engage in doubethink in order to get the necessary work done while still functioning socially in the managed society. Speaking of his desire to replace Christian values and mores with an ethos of total permissiveness, Jack Parsons says the post-Christian “Age of Horace” will be infused with a “liberation of new energies and the trend toward power governments, war, homosexuality, infantilism, and schizophrenia.”[i] As an aside, I should mention that contemporary literary theory also extolls schizophrenia. Wikipedia describes Deleuze and Guattari’s book Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia in the following terms: “Friedrich Nietzsche is also an influence; [the book] has been seen as a sequel to his The Antichrist … It is seen as a key text in the micropolitics of desire … schizoanalysis… [makes] emancipatory claims for schizophrenia. Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia became a publishing sensation and a celebrated work.” Like almost all contemporary theory, it’s rubbish. 

Most important, this is a society of total permissiveness and instantaneous gratification. World Controller Mustapha Mond says, “Has any of you been compelled to live through a long time-interval between the consciousness of a desire and its fulfilment?” (33). As if that were a good thing. One essential source of sensual gratification is the Feelies, which, as World Controller Mond says to the Savage, are works of “art out of practically nothing but pure sensation.” These are actually pornographic movies with full sensual stimulation: auditory, olfactory, visual, tactile. By simply putting your hand to a device you experience the Feelies—the film—with all your senses: “‘Take hold of those metal knobs on the arms of your chair,’ whispered Lenina [to the Savage], ‘Otherwise you won’t get any of the Feely effects’” (128). Compare that to this passage from a 2019 book by philosopher Jean-Claude Larchet: “Over the last few years, the IT industry has developed headsets that allow their users to be immersed in an artificial virtual reality. All the senses are involved, sight, hearing, smell, and touch. Sound comes from different places and images are 3-D. Odors are diffused and the body feels movements and impulses to which it can react.”[ii] Huxley precisely predicted virtual reality supplanting or at least augmenting actual reality. But these films at the same time reinforce ideology: “The negro was packed off to an Adult Re-conditioning Centre and the film ended happily and decorously, with the blonde becoming the mistress of all her three rescuers” (129). Here they have Pregnancy Substitutes, Violent Passion Surrogates, eat synthetic foods, listen to synthetic music, all of which, I contend, we do also. For instance, our processed and GMO foods, the pseudo-music churned out by the so-called music industry, the violent passion surrogate of following your favorite sports team or watching slasher movies or releasing vitriol against whoever the media programs us to ridicule and hate. Of course, our Pregnancy Substitute is that fabulous career and climb up the ladder of success that is promised to women in the traditionally male work world.


In the novel this society came into being after the Nine Years’ War in A.F. 141 (i.e. 2049). After the “Nine Years’ War, [and] the economic collapse [t]here was a choice between World Control and destruction. Between stability …” (36). We should remember here what Huxley says in his introduction. Totalitarianism is inevitable; we have two choices: “militarized totalitarianisms” (i.e. destruction) or supranational totalitarianism (i.e. stability). We are being frightened into choosing a “stable” totalitarian World Government—in Brave New World there are stockpiles of biological weapons like anthrax, but it’s a “peaceful” neo-Feudal society (35-36). After the Nine Years’ War, the Controller says, “People were willing to have even their appetites controlled. Anything for a quiet life. We’ve gone on controlling [them] ever since” (175). The truth is that in 2019 the move to neo-Feudalism is already far advanced. The deliberate destruction of the Middle Class, the de-industrialization of the United States, the incessant global warming conditioning with its hammering away about our need to make sacrifices—all designed to make us happy slaves in the coming Neo-Feudal order. This order is Pagan, and the sacrifices are to the great goddess Earth. 

The masses have been conditioned to dislike reading books (and the great books are suppressed from the Alphas who might read them). Today, in most cases, books aren’t even censored because our controllers know hardly anyone reads dangerous books anymore. It seems conditioning against serious reading is farther along than even Huxley imagined; that is, he still imagined it would be necessary to prohibit books like the Bible. The World Controllers are the priestly caste, the only ones with knowledge of literature and history. Very few people have such knowledge today.

Christianity has been abolished and replaced with Neo-Pagan New Age religion, exactly as has happened or is happening in the world today. We read: “We have the World State now. And Ford’s Day celebrations, and Community Sings, and Solidarity Services” (40). Uninhibited hedonism is the religion of the State. Today we have so-called Gay Pride parades in every major Western city; these are really neo-Pagan Phallic Worship festivals disguised as civic recognition of a minority (I’m told that at the first ever Gay Pride parade in Los Angles there was a twenty-foot phallus being marched around).  And just as today no scientific theories are permitted that would support the notion of cosmic purpose—instead we have mandatory purposeless Darwinian evolution as our metaphysical substrate—so in this society purpose is strictly forbidden:

Once you began admitting explanations in terms of purpose—well, you didn’t know what the result might be. It was the sort of idea that might easily de-condition the more unsettled minds among the higher castes—make them lose their faith in happiness as the Sovereign Good and take to believing, instead, that the goal was somewhere beyond, somewhere outside the present human sphere; that the purpose of life was not the maintenance of well-being, but some intensification and refining of consciousness, some enlargement of knowledge. Which was, the Controller reflected, quite possibly true. (136)

Aldous’s brother Julian would write of the need to unify the world mind in his manifesto of the future, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy. We see this accomplished especially in the Solidarity Service scene, one of the best in the book. 

… it was not the ear that heard the pulsing rhythm, it was the midriff; the wail and clang of those recurring harmonies haunted, not the mind, but the yearning bowels of compassion …The service had begun. The dedicated soma tablets were placed in the centre of the table. The loving cup of strawberry ice-cream soma was passed from hand to hand and, with the formula, “I drink to my annihilation” twelve times quaffed. Then to the accompaniment of the synthetic orchestra the First Solidarity Hymn was sung. (62). 

They keep repeating, “I drink to the Greater Being” and “I drink to the imminence of His Coming.” Of course, it ends in a Dionysian climax: “Orgy-porgy, Ford and fun, / Kiss the girls and make them One. / Boys at one with girls in peace; / Orgy-porgy gives release” (65). This is the same sort of hypnosis we see in 1984 before the idol of Big Brother: “B-B! . . . B-B! . . . B-B!” incessantly intoned while “the stamp of naked feet and the throbbing of tom-toms” is heard in the background, “a sort of hymn to the wisdom and majesty of Big Brother, but still more it was an act of self-hypnosis, a deliberate drowning of consciousness by means of rhythmic noise.”[i] Near the end of the book we have the requisite Grand Inquisitor scene with World Controller of Western Europe Mustapha Mond explaining to the Savage why the people prefer artificially induced happiness and slavery to freedom and responsibility. We get the same type of scene in 1984 between O’Brien and Winston. The source is Dostoevsky’s chapter “The Grand Inquisitor” in The Brothers Karamazov. Again, it comes down to moral and epistemic relativism. The Savage says man is degraded in this world and the World Controller replies: “Of course if you choose some other standard than ours, then perhaps you might say he was degraded. But you’ve got to stick to one set of postulates” (181). Truth is what the World Controllers say it is. That is precisely our world now. 

We have seen how three of Huxley’s requirements for a society of happy slaves—what he calls the “ultimate revolution”[i]—have been fulfilled:

  1. A powerful technique of suggestion, using Pavlovian conditioning techniques and drugs.
  2. A totally permissive, hedonistic society based on instantaneous gratification and so-called sexual freedom.
  3. The infrastructure for a neo-Feudal world of masters and slaves.

The only one we have not discussed is eugenics. Let’s look at that now.


In Brave New World only thirty-percent of female embryos develop normally, the rest get a dose of male sex hormone (8). Most women are sterile (9). In our time fertility is historically low in both men and women. Why? Apparently, it’s due to chemicals. Live Science reports that atrazine in the water is turning some male frogs into females capable of reproduction. This is the study that induced Alex Jones to say that the New World Order controllers are turning frogs gay. He was citing an actual Stanford University study, but atrazine is turning them female not gay. Another story from NPR is titled “Gender-Bending Fish Widespread in U.S.” and says that a “survey of fish in rivers and streams around the country shows that a large percentage of male bass have acquired feminine characteristics. Scientists say it’s the biggest survey of this gender-bending condition in U.S. waters. And while they can’t be sure of the cause, they suspect industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals are the culprit.”[i] Actually, synthetic estrogen is found in nearly every can of food we consume and estrogen mimicking endocrine disruptors are also found in plastics. Multiple studies conclude that male fertility is extremely low due to chemicals. This is why many critics believe the eco-movement against global warming is a ruse, a front, since very little if anything is said about synthetic estrogen, estrogen mimicking endocrine disruptors in plastics, pesticides, and other chemicals reducing fertility and causing cancer and other diseases which are endemic. Although world population is expected to stabilize, this is not good enough for eugenically-minded elites. Bertrand Russell writes in The Impact of Science on Society: “I do not pretend that birth control is the only way in which population can be kept from increasing … [War] has hitherto been disappointing in this respect, but perhaps bacteriological war may prove more effective.” Like the Huxleys, Russell was writing shortly after the Second World War, and he engages in the same fear mongering: “To deal with this problem it will be necessary to find ways of preventing an increase in world population. If this is to be done otherwise than by wars, pestilences, and famines, it will demand a powerful international authority.”[ii] Population control is a euphemism for eugenics, and for the oligarchs is a topic of obsession. I would contend that it has little to do with actual over-population, and much more to do with an active antipathy to the lower orders, with whom they are then forced to share resources. There was no question that after the Second World War, when the infrastructure was established for an international world order, birth control would become destigmatized and accessible, abortion would also become destigmatized and legal, and homosexuality would be encouraged. Although nobody could ever have guessed it at the time, despite Julian Huxley’s proposals as the first Director General of UNESCO. Twenty years after Russell wrote the above words, Henry Kissinger wrote National Security Memo 200: “Depopulation should be the highest priority of U.S. foreign policy towards the Third World” (April 24, 1974).  Kissinger then established a policy-planning group in the U.S. State Department’s Office of Population Affairs: “GLOBAL 2000.” This was declassified in 1989. He cites thirteen countries for depopulation through food scarcity, sterilization, war, and family planning (a euphemism for abortion). This is a major PSYOP. We are being incessantly inundated with alarmist anti-human fulminations, such as the following from David Attenborough: “Humans are a plague on Earth.”[iii]  Attenborough would certainly be in sympathy with the “Anti-Natalist” movement. Professor David Benatar, who chairs the Department of Philosophy at the University of Cape Town, wrote a book titled, Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence, published by Oxford University Press in 2006. He actually argues in his book that extinction of the human race is desirable. Anti-Natalism is also summed up in the following excerpt from a recent article in The Guardian:

In February, a 27-year-old Indian man named Raphael Samuel announced plans for an unusual lawsuit. He was going to sue his parents for begetting him. “It was not our decision to be born,” he told the BBC. “Human existence is totally pointless.” Samuel recently told me over Skype from Mumbai that his is a good life, and he is actually close to his parents. His complaint is more fundamental: he believes it is wrong to bring new people into the world without their consent. He wanted to sue his parents for a symbolic amount of money, such as a single rupee, “to instill that fear among parents in general. Because now parents don’t think before having a child,” he told me. Samuel subscribes to a philosophy called anti-natalism.[i]

This view is becoming pervasive, and we are seeing healthy young women getting sterilized, saying that having babies is a crime against the earth. The point is, this is a mental virus implanted into minds deliberately. Ted Turned recently said on camera to a journalist from We are Change: “We need to reduce the population from seven billion to two billion.” How on earth are you going to do that, Ted? Research on population control, the prevention of future births, is now being carried out covertly by biotech companies. In the novel, Foster says: “fertility is merely a nuisance” (8), and one of the slogans of the community is: “Civilization is Sterilization” (92). And although the fertile woman all wear “Malthusian Belts”—that is, they carry and habitually practice birth control—for the rare pregnancy there are “Abortion Centres” (92). We should remember that Planned Parenthood was founded by Margaret Sanger, who infamously said: “We do not want word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population.” The fact is, fifty-two percent of African-American pregnancies end in abortion. That is to say, while African-Americans make up only twelve percent of the US population they account for thirty-seven percent of all abortions, something the Reverend Clenard Childress calls “Black Genocide.”[i] But to be fair to elites, they don’t just want to exterminate black people, they want to exterminate poor and middle-class white people as well. Recently there was an article in the British Journal of Medical Ethics titled, “After-birth Abortion: Why Should the Baby Live?” The fact is there is a push for legalized infanticide, which is not surprising since it was Christianity that put an end to legalized infanticide in the first place, and we are now living in a post-Christian neo-Pagan world. The Princeton “moral philosopher” Peter Singer believes parents should be allowed to kill their babies, at least if they are born with a disability. “Killing them,” he says, “cannot be equated with killing normal human beings.”[ii] 

The word eugenics was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis Galton, Charles Darwin’s half-cousin. He was a fanatical eugenicist, saying eugenics “must be introduced into the national conscience, like a new religion. … for eugenics cooperate with the workings of nature by securing that humanity shall be represented by the fittest races.”[iii] Of course, the “fittest race” is always the race of the person who is advocating eugenics. The Rockefeller Foundation and the Carnegie Institute were involved in promoting Eugenics laws in the United States in the early part of the twentieth century, and over 60,000 Americans endured forced sterilization. The Rockefellers transferred their program to Germany in the 1930s, funding The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. We all know how that turned out. The targets of population reduction in the US were based on ethnic background, mental intelligence, and economic status. The Carnegie Institute established a “Eugenics Records Office” called Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory in 1904, collating genetic data on Americans with the intention of controlling population size and expunging certain traits from the population. The Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory is still extant, under the guise of a philanthropic institution. Huxley’s brave new world is under the control of one united World Government, with ten World Controllers; a totally “standardized” (4) world with the lower orders or dysgenic population bred to do the manual labor and conditioned to never question anything. Like the Outer Party in 1984, the Alphas are strictly conditioned too; they also do what they are told and do not ask uncomfortable questions. The size of population and the quality and behavior of all people is totally controlled: “The principle of mass production at last applied to biology” (4). The dumbing down of the mass population is scientifically perfected. Lower castes are “dosed almost to death with alcohol” (3) and given less oxygen: “Nothing like oxygen-shortage for keeping an embryo below par” (9).  As someone who taught at American universities for nine years, I can attest to the systematic dumbing down of Americans. Many of my students were barely literate, and few were trained to think critically (if you are reading this, former student of mine, you are not in that category). As Hagopian writes, “an insidious federal agenda has been implemented to condition and brainwash a population of mindless, robotic citizenry that simply does what it’s told, and of course the brainwashing commences early in America’s schools.” Educational researcher Cynthia Weatherly says, this is a system of “limited learning for lifelong labor.”[iv] Add to this the harm done from a toxic media culture, and Huxley’s brave new world is an accomplished fact. But there is more. We must remember that chemically processed foods, genetically modified organisms, hormone injected meat, and the pesticides and chemicals found in most of what we consume all contribute to the deleterious mental condition of the masses; likewise, stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is bombarding the environment with barium, aluminum, strontium and other heavy metals. (Incidentally, while stratospheric aerosol geoengineering or weather modification is no longer denied by many climatologists, people who pointed out the obvious were at one time, and perhaps still are, labeled “chem trail conspiracy theorists”; one more obvious example of systematic brainwashing, since it witnessed people denying the evidence of their senses in favor of their programming, as you just had to look up at the sky to confirm the spraying.) Add to this the drug use of most Americans, and it’s no wonder that cognitive functioning is seriously debilitated. 

Lastly, we learn that theirs, like ours, is a data-based society: “all the relevant information” on every person is on file (6). 

UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy

It should be clear that we are now living in the brave new world of Huxley’s imagination. But if we look at his brother Julian’s book, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, we see the same vision—although without the satirical dystopic fictional dressing. To conclude this essay, let’s take a very brief look at this 1946 book, written just after the Second World War, about the same time his brother was writing his forward to the new edition of the novel. UNESCO stands for United Nations Educational, Science, and Cultural Organization and was formed after the Second World War. As Hagopian rightly notes in his article, “The Dumbing Down of America—by Design,” Julian had UNESCO issue a barrage of pamphlets insisting that “children be educated devoid of any national allegiance, patriotism or family loyalties” as these were “identified as the biggest barriers to their demonic ambitions.” UNESCO was Julian’s creation, and when he left in 1948 “Unesco was well set on a course which might be altered by the odd few degrees but which could not now be seriously diverted.”[i] Julian’s creation is still very active. In the book, the four necessary requirements for the new age of happy slaves under the complete control of their masters, according to his brother Aldous, is spelled out, but with a positive spin.


Eugenics got a bad name after the Nazi years. Julian writes that “even though it is quite true that any radical eugenic policy will be for many years politically and psychologically impossible, it will be important for Unesco to see that the eugenic problem is examined with the greatest care, and that the public mind is informed of the issues at stake so that much that is now unthinkable may at last become thinkable.”[i] Remember, at that time even legalized abortion was unthinkable. Let alone the deliberate destruction of the newly born.  So, we have been moving from that time to now with a sure and steady step to the fulfillment of his vision. 


UNESCO will structure education so that it will “fit” the person “to take his place as a member of the community and society into which he is born.”[i] As in the feudal societies of old, you are born into your position and there is no social mobility. We see this in Brave New World and we see this in Julian’s visionary manifesto for the New World Order.


UNESCO will be enabled to “Correctly discount the ideas of … fanatics and overzealous doctrinaire moralists … [T]he time will doubtless come when we shall be able to be more precise and say that a particular sub-type of asthenic is definitely prone to over-rigid moralizing.”[i] This is clearly a gibe at Christian morality, which we see frequently in the book. For instance:

[O]ver-strong or one-sided repression is capable of producing various distortions of character and frustrations to full development, and notably a hypertrophied sense of sin which can be disastrous for the individual or to others. If we could discover some means of regulating the process of repression and its effects, we should without doubt be able to make the world both happier and more efficient. This would mean an extension of education backwards from the nursery school to the nursery itself.[i]

Consider especially that last sentence in relation to his brother’s novel: “This would mean an extension of education backwards from the nursery school to the nursery itself.” Of course, control of the individual from the nursery and even the womb is pivotal to the extension of total control in Brave New World, and we see here that Julian is craving the exact same form of total control from cradle to grave.

Techniques of Suggestion

Using almost the same words as his brother, Julian writes that it will be necessary to take “the techniques of persuasion and information and true propaganda that we have learnt to apply nationally in war, and deliberately bending them to the international tasks of peace, if necessary utilizing them, as Lenin envisaged, to ‘overcome the resistance of millions’ to desirable change.”[i] And there it is, all four points addressed, at much greater length in the book, of course, than I have suggested by these few brief quotes, but hopefully enough to see the unity of the brothers’ books.


What is the purpose of it all? As Zbigniew Brzezinski would write later in Between Two Ages, the New World Order will be a synthesis of Russian Communism and American Capitalism. Regarding communism and capitalism, Huxley writes: “Can … these opposites be reconciled, this antithesis be resolved in a higher synthesis? I believe not only that this can happen, but that, through the inexorable dialectic of evolution, it must happen.”[i] We must always remember that our World Controllers manipulate Hegelian dialectic consciously and deliberately to make happen that which they wish to happen. In other words, things don’t just happen by chance or through some kind of innate power of evolution. Huxley wants precisely the supranational totalitarian One Word Order that his brother tells us is the lesser of two evils, and that we should be choosing. He writes that the goal is “political unification in some sort of world government.” “Special attention should consequently be given by Unesco to the problem of constructing a unified pool of tradition for the human species as a whole … a unified common outlook and a common set of purposes. This will be the latest part of the task of unifying the world mind.”[ii] Solidarity Service, anyone? Strangely for a rationalist, the book discusses the importance of exploring parapsychology, extra sensory perception, pre-cognition, and the “elaborate techniques and exercises [of] Hindu yogis and other mystics.”[iii] And just as the most famous of his followers in our day, Richard Dawkins, refuses even to concede the possibility that our world was created by the God of Christian revelation yet incredibly says space aliens might have seeded human beings in the far distant past, so Julian—equally incredibly—believed in the possibility of disembodied spirits, such as Shaw dramatized in his play Farfetched Fables.[iv] Of course, we should not forget that the cover of the book is adorned with an illustration of three statues of identical Buddhas in deep meditation with smaller dancing buddhas woven on textile behind them. Part of the mandate of the New World Order is the destruction of Christianity and its replacement by Eastern “New Age” religion. As social engineer, this was the role of Aldous even more than his brother Julian. This task is almost complete. Will they need a “Nine Years’ War” of horrific destruction to bring us to our knees and give up national sovereignty? I suspect they will. The two themes most constant throughout the book are eugenics and the eradication of the nation state. 

When Thomas Henry Huxley finally sailed to America to reunite with the sister, whom he had not seen in over twenty-five years, the first thing he noticed as the ship entered New York Harbor was the New York Tribune and Western Union Telegraph buildings. “Ah,” he remarked to the passenger at his side, “that is interesting; that is American. In the Old World the first things you see as you approach a great city are steeples; here you see, first, centres of intelligence.”[i] How incredibly sad, and indeed deluded. The process of molding a new world order on the ash heap of Christianity did not begin with Thomas Henry Huxley, “Darwin’s Bulldog,” but he did as much as anyone to assure that it came to pass. After all, the man practically guaranteed that Darwinism as a metaphysical system would replace Christianity, and almost singlehandedly reconstructed the educational system in the UK. Two generations later his grandson Aldous would write a brilliant satire of the new world order, and barely more than a dozen years after that his other grandson would outline the brighter vision of that society in UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy. He wrote this manifesto shortly before taking charge of UNESCO, an institution designed to remold and unite international culture after a devastating world war had traumatized the population. Indeed, the war served as a catalyst for world re-organization. The job is essentially done. 

[1] Ronald Clark, The Huxleys (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968), 53.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 66.

[1] Bertrand Russell, The Impact of Science on Society (New York: AMS Press, 1968), 15.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 78.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 83.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 79.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 114-15.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 144.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 185-86.

[1] Quoted in Gregory L. Bahnsen, Always Ready: Directions for Defending the Faith (Nacogdoches: Covenant Media Press, 1996), 200.

[1]Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 173.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 174.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 196.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 275.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 277.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 281.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 282.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 218, 226.

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 232.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 301.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 235.

[1] All quotation from are from Aldous Huxley, Brave New World and Brave New World Revisited (New York: Harper and Row, 1965) and will be cited in the body of the essay.

[1] “Scientists: Artificial Wombs Could Replace Women,” Technocracy News and Trends, November 27, 2019. https://www.technocracy.news/scientists-artificial-wombs-could-replace-women/.

[1] Kelly Tatera, “Scopolamine: Is This Mind-Control Drug the ‘Most Dangerous’ in the World?” The Science Explorer, December 23, 2015. http://thescienceexplorer.com/brain-and-body/scopolamine-mind-control-drug-most-dangerous-world.

[1] Ethan A. Huff, “Most dangerous drug in the world can block free will, wipe memory – Was it involved in Batman shooting?” Natural News, August 2, 2012. https://www.naturalnews.com/036661_scopolamine_mind_control_drug.html.

[1] Michael Martinez, “Convicted RFK assassin Sirhan Sirhan seeks prison release,” CNN, November 26, 2011. https://www.cnn.com/2011/11/26/justice/california-sirhan-rfk/index.html.

[1] Jerome R. Corsi, “Psych meds linked to 90% of school shootings,” WND, December 18, 2012. https://www.wnd.com/2012/12/psych-meds-linked-to-90-of-school-shootings/#RgDwC5hgM3PU0SE1.99.

[1] Joachim Hagopian, “The Dumbing Down of America—By Design.” Global Research, January 30, 2018.  https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-dumbing-down-of-america-by-design/5395928.

[1] Quoted in Matthew Yde, Bernard Shaw and Totalitarianism: Longing for Utopia (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013), 16. Shaw wrote this for the July 1941 issue of Labour Monthly.

[1] Christopher Ingraham, “11 charts that show marijuana has truly gone mainstream.” Washington Post, April 19, 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2017/04/19/11-charts-that-show-marijuana-has-truly-gone-mainstream/.

[1] “Off-label use of hormones as an antiaging strategy: a review.” US National Library of Medicine 
National Institutes of Health. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4116364/.

[1] “Teenager who was sexually assaulted multiple times ends her own life after requesting legal euthanasia.” Independent, June 4, 2019. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/euthanasia-clinic-suicide-depression-rape-anorexia-netherlands-teenager-noa-pothoven-a8944356.html.

[1] Andrew Gilligan, “Paedophilia is natural and normal for males.” The Telegraph, July 5, 2014. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/10948796/Paedophilia-is-natural-and-normal-for-males.html

[1] Jack Parson, The Book of Babalon. The quote can be found in the second paragraph of the introduction.

[1] Jean-Claude Larchet, The New Media Epidemic: The Undermining of Society, Family, and Our Own Soul. Trans. Archibald Andrew Torrance (Jordanville: Holy Trinity Publications, 2019), 88.

[1] George Orwell, 1984 (New York: Signet Classics, 1977), 16.

[1] Aldous Huxley, “The Ultimate Revolution (Berkeley Speech, 1962).” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2WaUkZXKA30.

[1] “Study: Gender-Bending Fish Widespread In U.S.” NPR, September 16, 2009. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112888785.

[1] Russell, The Impact of Science on Society, 103, 111.

[1] Quoted in Josh Hrala, “David Attenborough Has an Important Warning About Human Population.” Science Alert, November 11, 2016. https://www.sciencealert.com/the-time-david-attenborough-said-humans-are-a-plague.

[1] Rebecca Tuhus-Dubrow, “I Wish I’d Never been Born: The Rise of the anti-Natalists.” The Guardian, November 14, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/nov/14/anti-natalists-childfree-population-climate-change.

[1] “Exposing the Black Genocide with Rev. Clenard Childress.” The Corbett Report, March 13, 2012. https://www.corbettreport.com/corbett-report-radio-087-exposing-the-black-genocide-with-rev-clenard-childress/.

[1]Katie Booth, “What I learned about disability and infanticide from Peter Singer,” Aeon, January 10, 2018. https://aeon.co/ideas/what-i-learned-about-disability-and-infanticide-from-peter-singer.

[1] Quoted in Yde, Bernard Shaw and Totalitarianism, 73.

[1] Hagopian, “The Dumbing Down of America—By Design.”

[1] Clark, The Huxleys, 321.

[1] Julian Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy (London: Euston Grove Press, 2010), 21.

[1] Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, 29.

[1] Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, 20.

[1] Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, 33.

[1] Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, 60.

[1] Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, 61.

[1] Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, 17.

[1] Huxley, UNESCO: Its Purpose and Philosophy, 37.

[1] See Clark, The Huxleys, 332-33.

[1] Quoted in Clark, The Huxleys, 89.

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